What is a jigsaw puzzle?

jigsaw puzzle

A jigsaw puzzle is a tiling game requiring the assembly of interlocking pieces.

jigsaw puzzle
jigsaw puzzle

History of Jigsaw Puzzles

Origins and Development

Jigsaw puzzles trace their origins back to the 18th century in Europe. It all began in the 1760s when European mapmakers pasted maps onto wood and cut them into small pieces. John Spilsbury, an engraver and mapmaker from London, is often credited with inventing the first jigsaw puzzle in 1767. His initial idea was to create an educational tool to teach geography. By dissecting maps, students could learn about different countries and continents more interactively. The original puzzles were cut using a marquetry saw, which gave them the name “dissected maps.”

As time went on, the popularity of these puzzles expanded beyond education. By the 19th century, jigsaw puzzles had become a form of entertainment, especially among the upper class. Advances in printing and die-cutting technology made it feasible to produce puzzles with more intricate designs and more pieces. This shift saw the transition from wooden puzzles to cardboard, which was a more cost-effective material. In terms of cost, the first jigsaw puzzles were considered luxury items, with prices ranging from £1 to £3 in the 19th century – a substantial amount in those days.

Evolution over the Centuries

The 20th century brought significant innovation and expansion to the jigsaw puzzle industry. With the onset of the Great Depression in the 1930s, jigsaw puzzles became an affordable entertainment option for many families. In fact, during the early years of the Depression, it’s estimated that over 10 million puzzles were sold weekly in the U.S. alone. These puzzles often came with intricate and colorful designs, often reflecting contemporary art or popular culture. Some even commented on the economic challenges of the time.

By the mid-20th century, innovations in manufacturing allowed for mass production. The size and complexity of puzzles grew exponentially. Puzzles that had a mere 500 pieces in the early 1900s evolved into ones with 1000, 2000, or even 5000 pieces by the 1980s. Such dimensions appealed to a growing base of enthusiasts who loved the challenge.

However, not everything was about size. The quality of materials also changed over time. While early puzzles were made of wood or cardboard, modern puzzles began to incorporate plastic and even 3D elements, adding to the overall experience. The speed of production increased too, reducing the overall cost and making puzzles more accessible to a wider audience.

In recent years, there’s been a resurgence in the popularity of jigsaw puzzles, especially with the rise of digital platforms. Websites and apps offer virtual jigsaw puzzles, blending traditional pastime with modern technology. These digital versions have the advantage of being easily customizable in terms of difficulty and design, providing endless hours of entertainment.

Throughout its evolution, the jigsaw puzzle has remained a beloved pastime, providing both educational value and sheer entertainment across generations.

Types of Jigsaw Puzzles

Traditional Interlocking Puzzles

These are the classic puzzles that come to mind for most people when they hear the term “jigsaw puzzle.” Comprising uniquely shaped pieces that fit together to form a complete image, traditional interlocking puzzles are often rectangular or square. They are available in a wide range of sizes, from small sets with as few as 10 pieces to challenging ones with over 10,000 pieces. A standard medium-sized jigsaw for adults typically contains 1,000 pieces, with dimensions averaging 28 x 20 inches. The quality of these puzzles can vary, with higher-quality ones made of thick cardboard with a glossy finish for durability.

Materials play a vital role in the quality and price of the puzzle. For example, a standard cardboard puzzle may cost anywhere from $10 to $50, while those with special features or artwork can reach up to $200 or more. Wikipedia provides an in-depth history and more variations of these puzzles.

3D Jigsaw Puzzles

Adding a new dimension to the traditional puzzling experience, 3D jigsaw puzzles are designed to be built upwards, often forming famous landmarks, sculptures, or other objects. Popular 3D puzzle subjects include landmarks like the Eiffel Tower or Big Ben, with some containing upwards of 300 pieces. Due to the intricacy of their design, they often come with a higher price tag. Depending on the complexity and material (often plastic for stability), a 3D puzzle might range from $20 to over $100.

Wooden vs. Cardboard Puzzles

The debate between wooden and cardboard puzzles is age-old, with each having its own set of advantages.

  • Wooden Puzzles: These are known for their durability and tactile feel. Wooden puzzles are often thicker than their cardboard counterparts and can last for generations. They’re commonly used for kids’ puzzles due to their resistance to wear and tear. However, they can be more expensive, with prices ranging from $20 for simpler kids’ versions to over $500 for intricate designs for enthusiasts.
  • Cardboard Puzzles: Cardboard puzzles are more common and are available in a wide range of images and piece counts. They’re lighter and more portable than wooden puzzles. While they can be durable, they may wear out more quickly with frequent use. Their price point is typically more accessible, with most adult puzzles ranging from $10 to $50.
Jigsaw Puzzles 101: Selecting the right one, where to buy them, and what to do once they're complete
Jigsaw Puzzles 101: Selecting the right one, where to buy them, and what to do once they’re complete

Double-sided Puzzles

Double-sided puzzles take the challenge up a notch. As the name suggests, there’s an image on both sides of each piece. This adds to the complexity, as puzzlers must determine not only where a piece goes but also which side is correct. They can be a real test of patience and skill. In terms of size, they usually fall into the range of 500 to 1,500 pieces. Because of the added difficulty and printing on both sides, they can be slightly more expensive than their single-sided counterparts, usually costing between $20 and $60.

In all these variations, jigsaw puzzles offer a combination of challenge, relaxation, and accomplishment, catering to a wide audience of enthusiasts worldwide.

Benefits of Solving Jigsaw Puzzles

Cognitive Advantages

Solving jigsaw puzzles regularly can significantly boost cognitive functions. These benefits can be seen across various age groups, from toddlers to the elderly. Engaging in this activity stimulates the brain, improving memory, attention to detail, and problem-solving skills. Here are some specific advantages:

  • Improved Memory: When putting a puzzle together, one often has to recall shapes, sizes, and pieces’ patterns, essentially giving their short-term memory a workout. This consistent brain exercise can enhance memory recall and improve the brain’s overall processing speed.
  • Problem-solving Skills: Puzzles require a strategy, logical thinking, and a trial-and-error approach. By regularly solving puzzles, individuals can enhance their analytical skills, which can be beneficial in daily decision-making.
  • Increased Concentration: A study published on Wikipedia suggests that individuals who engage in puzzles can hold their concentration for longer periods, which is valuable in today’s distraction-filled world.

Emotional and Stress-relief Benefits

Apart from the cognitive benefits, jigsaw puzzles also offer emotional advantages:

  • Meditative Effect: Engaging with puzzles can put the brain in a state similar to meditation. The focus required to find the right pieces can be calming and offer a break from daily stressors, leading to lower anxiety levels.
  • Sense of Accomplishment: Completing a jigsaw puzzle, especially a challenging one, brings a feeling of satisfaction. This achievement releases dopamine, a neurotransmitter responsible for feelings of pleasure and motivation, promoting a more positive mood.
  • Social Connection: Puzzling can be a group activity, allowing family members or friends to connect and work towards a common goal, fostering teamwork and strengthening bonds.

Enhancing Visual-spatial Reasoning

Visual-spatial reasoning is the ability to visualize patterns and understand how objects fit together. Jigsaw puzzles can be instrumental in developing this skill:

  • Pattern Recognition: To find where a piece fits, one must identify patterns and colors, improving their ability to recognize patterns in other areas of life, like mathematics or art.
  • Hand-eye Coordination: Picking up, rotating, and fitting puzzle pieces together enhances the coordination between visual cues (seeing the piece) and physical action (placing the piece).
  • Spatial Awareness: Deciphering how different pieces fit together in a confined space, like a puzzle board, can improve an individual’s spatial intelligence, which is crucial in tasks like driving or organizing.

Engaging with jigsaw puzzles offers a holistic development opportunity, combining mental stimulation with emotional well-being and enhanced visual reasoning. The best part? These benefits come while enjoying a leisurely and rewarding activity.

8 Tips to Store and Display Your Puzzles From Jigsaw Pros
8 Tips to Store and Display Your Puzzles From Jigsaw Pros

Jigsaw Puzzle Techniques and Strategies

Starting with Edge Pieces

One of the most common strategies for solving jigsaw puzzles is to begin with the edge pieces. Here’s why this approach is effective:

  • Framework Creation: Starting with the edges provides a clear boundary and framework. This makes it easier to visualize where the inner pieces might fit and offers a sense of direction.
  • Easy Identification: Edge pieces are simpler to identify because they have at least one straight edge. By separating these out at the beginning, puzzlers can reduce the pool of pieces they have to sift through, speeding up the overall process.
  • Boosted Confidence: Completing the outer frame gives a sense of accomplishment early on, which can be motivating. It’s a tangible progress indicator, which can be crucial when tackling puzzles with thousands of pieces.

Color Sorting

Organizing pieces by color is another helpful technique. The logic behind this is straightforward:

  • Reduced Complexity: By grouping pieces of similar colors together, you effectively break the puzzle down into smaller, more manageable sections. Instead of searching through all the pieces for a match, you only have to search within a specific color group.
  • Pattern Recognition: Certain areas of a puzzle may have distinct colors or patterns. By focusing on one color at a time, it becomes easier to recognize these patterns and determine where pieces fit relative to each other.
  • Time Efficiency: Color sorting can save a lot of time. For instance, if you’re working on a section of the puzzle that’s predominantly blue (like a sky), you can just refer to your sorted blue pieces rather than sifting through an entire box.

Puzzle Piece Shapes

Understanding the various shapes of puzzle pieces and how they fit together can be a game-changer:

  • Unique Fit: Each puzzle piece is designed to fit uniquely in its designated spot. By paying attention to the peculiarities of a piece’s shape—whether it has two knobs and two holes, or maybe three knobs and one hole—you can narrow down its potential location.
  • Connector Pieces: Some pieces serve as connectors between two distinct areas of the puzzle, like where the sky meets the ground. Identifying these can help in bridging different sections together.
  • Piece Rotation: Often, the correct piece might be right in front of you, but it’s just oriented incorrectly. Regularly rotating pieces to test different orientations can lead to faster matches.

A combination of these techniques can drastically improve puzzle-solving speed and efficiency. Whether you’re a novice or a seasoned puzzler, these strategies can enhance your jigsaw experience, making the process more streamlined and enjoyable. Remember, the ultimate goal is to enjoy the journey, so find the techniques that work best for you and happy puzzling!

Difficulty Levels and Piece Count

Jigsaw puzzles come in a myriad of designs and complexities. While the choice often boils down to personal preference, understanding the correlation between piece count and difficulty can guide enthusiasts to make informed decisions. Here’s a breakdown:


Kids’ Puzzles

Piece Count: Kids’ puzzles typically range from 4 to 100 pieces.


  • Large Pieces: These puzzles often come with larger-sized pieces, making it easier for little hands to grasp and maneuver them.
  • Vivid Imagery: Bright colors, cartoon characters, and simple designs make them visually appealing and identifiable for children.
  • Educational Aspect: Many kids’ puzzles integrate alphabets, numbers, or animal images to make the activity both fun and educational.

Price Range: Generally, these puzzles are relatively inexpensive, ranging from $5 to $20, depending on the brand and quality.

Adult Puzzles

Piece Count: Adult puzzles usually fall between 300 to 1,000 pieces.


  • Detailed Imagery: The designs can be intricate, showcasing landscapes, cityscapes, historical moments, or famous artworks. The details challenge the solver to pay close attention.
  • Standard-sized Pieces: Pieces are typically of standard size, but the sheer number and similarity in colors increase the challenge.
  • Quality Material: Adult puzzles tend to be made of sturdy cardboard, ensuring durability and a smooth finish.

Time Commitment: A 1,000-piece puzzle might take an average person anywhere from 5 to 15 hours to complete, depending on their skill level and the puzzle’s complexity.

Expert and Large-scale Puzzles

Piece Count: These puzzles start from 1,500 pieces and can go up to a staggering 40,000 pieces or more!


  • Intricate Designs: The imagery is often highly detailed, requiring immense patience and skill to complete. Themes can range from world maps to elaborate artworks or photomosaics.
  • Varied Piece Shapes: To increase the challenge, these puzzles might incorporate unique and varied piece shapes, which makes identifying the correct placement even more challenging.
  • Quality and Durability: Given their size and cost, these puzzles are typically made from high-quality materials, ensuring longevity.

Time Commitment: Depending on the piece count, these puzzles can take weeks to months to complete. For instance, a 5,000-piece puzzle might take an enthusiast about 30 to 60 hours.

Cost: The prices for these mammoth puzzles can vary significantly, but they generally range from $50 for a 1,500-piece puzzle to upwards of $500 for a 40,000-piece behemoth.

Whether one is a beginner or an expert, there’s a jigsaw puzzle out there to match every skill level. It’s all about the journey, the challenge, and the satisfaction of seeing the completed image.

How to Do Jigsaw Puzzles Like an Expert
How to Do Jigsaw Puzzles Like an Expert

Popular Jigsaw Puzzle Brands and Manufacturers

The world of jigsaw puzzles is vast and diverse, with several brands establishing themselves as leaders in the industry. Their reputation is often built on the quality, imagery, and uniqueness of their products. Here’s a look at some of the top brands:


Founded: 1883 in Ravensburg, Germany.

Key Features:

  • Precision Fit: Ravensburger puzzles are renowned for their Softclick-Technology, ensuring that each piece fits seamlessly.
  • Wide Range: They offer puzzles ranging from kids’ versions with just a few pieces to intricate 40,000-piece giants for experts.
  • Quality Assurance: Made from premium-grade cardboard, Ravensburger puzzles boast a linen finish to minimize glare on the puzzle’s surface.

Price Range: Depending on the complexity and size, puzzles can cost anywhere from $10 for simpler versions to $400 for larger, more intricate designs.

Special Collections: Ravensburger frequently collaborates with artists and Disney to produce exclusive editions, making them collectibles for many enthusiasts.

White Mountain

Founded: 1978 in New Hampshire, USA.

Key Features:

  • Unique Artistry: White Mountain is well-known for its puzzles that depict nostalgic, Americana scenes, and landmarks.
  • Thick Pieces: Their puzzles are made using premium blue chipboard, resulting in durable and thick pieces.
  • Family-friendly: Many of their designs encourage family participation, with imagery appealing to various age groups.

Price Range: Their puzzles generally range from $15 for 300-piece puzzles to $70 for 1,000-piece special editions.

Special Collections: White Mountain often releases series or themed collections, such as “Movies,” “Television,” or “Vintage Candy Wrappers.”


Founded: 1963 in Recanati, Italy.

Key Features:

  • High-definition Printing: Clementoni puzzles are recognized for their sharp, vivid imagery, thanks to their sophisticated printing techniques.
  • Material Quality: They use recyclable materials, ensuring an eco-friendly product without compromising on quality.
  • Innovative Collections: From glow-in-the-dark puzzles to museum collections showcasing famous artworks, Clementoni is always at the forefront of innovation.

Price Range: A standard 1,000-piece puzzle might cost around $20, while special collections can go up to $100.

Special Collections: Their “High Quality Collection” showcases famous artworks and picturesque landscapes, while the “Museum Collection” features masterpieces from renowned artists.

Each of these brands brings its flair and commitment to quality in the world of jigsaw puzzles. While the choice ultimately lies with the consumer, it’s evident that with such manufacturers, the focus is on providing an unparalleled puzzling experience.

Coronavirus Means Everyone Wants Jigsaw Puzzles
Coronavirus Means Everyone Wants Jigsaw Puzzles

The Role of Jigsaw Puzzles in Modern Pop Culture

Jigsaw puzzles have not only been a popular pastime but have also found their way into the heart of modern pop culture. Their resurgence in the digital age and representation in various media facets attest to their timeless appeal.

Puzzles in Movies and TV

Iconic Scenes: Movies such as “Die Hard with a Vengeance” incorporated jigsaw puzzles as central plot devices. In the TV series “Sherlock,” the eponymous detective often uses a metaphorical ‘mind palace,’ which is likened to solving a complex jigsaw puzzle.

Symbolism: Films and series often use jigsaw puzzles to represent the complexities of relationships, memory, or personal challenges. For example, in the movie “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind,” the fragmented memories of the protagonists can be seen as jigsaw pieces, representing their tumultuous relationship.

Documentaries: “The Puzzle,” a documentary released in 2006, chronicles the life of an autistic person who excels in solving jigsaw puzzles, underlining their therapeutic benefits and role in societal perceptions.

Virtual and Digital Jigsaw Puzzles

Rise of Mobile Gaming: With the ubiquity of smartphones and tablets, digital puzzles have gained immense popularity. Apps like “Jigsaw Puzzle” and “Magic Jigsaw Puzzles” have been downloaded millions of times, with users spending hours piecing together digital puzzles.

Online Communities: Websites such as JigZone and JigsawPlanet allow users to create and share their own puzzles, fostering an online community of enthusiasts.

Virtual Reality (VR): New-age tech has transformed jigsaw puzzles into immersive experiences. Games like “Puzzle Rain,” a VR jigsaw game, allow users to solve puzzles in a three-dimensional space, redefining the traditional puzzling experience.

Benefits and Features: Digital puzzles offer advantages like zero risk of losing pieces, the ability to adjust difficulty on-the-go, and unique themes and designs. Additionally, they can be solved anywhere, anytime, making them a favorite among millennials and Gen Z.

The continual presence of jigsaw puzzles in pop culture highlights their enduring charm and relevance. From being simple tabletop games to their digital avatars, they have seamlessly transitioned through the ages, cementing their place in the hearts of many.

Caring for and Preserving Jigsaw Puzzles

Jigsaw puzzles, once assembled, can be masterpieces that deserve proper care and attention. Properly preserving and storing them can maintain their quality and ensure they last for generations to come.

Storage Solutions

Puzzle Storage Mats: These are specialty mats that allow for safe puzzle transport and storage. They are usually made of felt and come with inflatable tubes. Users can roll up their puzzles with the image side facing out, secure them, and then store or carry them with ease.

Puzzle Storage Boxes: Customized storage boxes, sometimes designed like puzzle sorter trays, come with compartments that allow users to categorize pieces based on colors, patterns, or edges. These boxes provide an efficient solution, especially for puzzles with a high piece count.

Stackable Flat Trays: These are perfect for puzzles in progress. The flat surface ensures that the puzzle remains flat and the pieces stay in place, and they can be easily stacked to save space.

Protective Bags: Silica gel packets can be placed inside puzzle boxes to prevent moisture build-up, which can warp and damage the pieces.

Framing Completed Puzzles

Choosing the Right Frame: A good quality frame that matches the size of the puzzle is essential. Remember, a standard-sized frame might not always fit a puzzle, so it’s better to measure the completed puzzle first.

Puzzle Conserver: This is a special adhesive used to bind puzzle pieces together. Once applied, the puzzle can be lifted up without it falling apart, making it ready for framing.

Matting: To give the puzzle a more finished look, consider adding a mat around it. This acts as a border and provides contrast, allowing the puzzle’s design to stand out.

UV-Protective Glass: For those looking to preserve the color and integrity of their puzzles, using a UV-protective glass for framing can prevent the puzzle from fading, especially if it’s going to be hung in a place that receives a lot of sunlight.

Professional Framing: If unsure about framing a puzzle yourself, many art stores offer professional framing services. Though this might increase the cost, it ensures the puzzle gets the best treatment possible.

Taking care of jigsaw puzzles might seem like a meticulous task, but the resulting preserved artwork is worth the effort. With the right tools and methods, it’s possible to keep those intricate images and memories intact for years to come.

Jigsaw puzzle solving
Jigsaw puzzle solving

Unique and Novelty Jigsaw Puzzles

In a world where jigsaw puzzles have become a staple hobby for many, novelty and unique puzzles offer an exciting twist to the conventional. These puzzles often bring added challenges or aesthetic appeal, making them both intriguing and captivating.

Personalized Puzzles

Photo Puzzles: Transform your favorite photographs into jigsaw puzzles. These are perfect for commemorating special occasions like weddings, birthdays, or anniversaries. Depending on the chosen provider, the price can range from $20 to $100 based on size and piece count.

Map Puzzles: Celebrate a special place by turning it into a puzzle. Whether it’s the location of a first date, a memorable vacation, or your hometown, map puzzles provide a geographical glimpse that’s personal.

Name or Message Puzzles: Featuring a name or a special message, these puzzles can be gifted during events, celebrations, or even for corporate branding.

Glow-in-the-dark Puzzles

Starry Nights and Celestial Maps: These puzzles are often designed with stars, galaxies, or constellations. Once completed, they can be charged under a light source and will glow in the dark, mimicking a night sky.

Fantasy and Mythical Creatures: Imagine dragons, unicorns, or fairies illuminated in the dark, adding a magical touch to the puzzle-solving experience.

Maintenance: It’s important to expose these puzzles to light frequently to maintain their glowing property. Also, they might be slightly more expensive due to the specialized material used in manufacturing.

Puzzles with Hidden Images

Magic Eye Puzzles: Stemming from the popular ‘Magic Eye’ pictures of the ’90s, these puzzles, when viewed from a certain angle or distance, reveal a hidden 3D image within the 2D puzzle.

Layered Images: These are puzzles that, upon completion, showcase one image. However, under certain light conditions or angles, a different, hidden image becomes visible.

Detective or Mystery Puzzles: These puzzles come with a storyline. The finished image, which remains a mystery until completion, provides clues or answers to a crime or mystery story that accompanies the puzzle.

Novelty puzzles undoubtedly offer an extra layer of excitement and challenge. Whether you’re gifting them or indulging in them yourself, they promise a unique experience that stands out from the conventional jigsaw puzzles.

Jigsaw Puzzle Communities and Competitions

Jigsaw puzzles have transcended being a mere hobby or pastime. Today, they represent a vibrant community and competitive scene, with enthusiasts from all over the globe. These communities provide a platform for puzzle lovers to share tips, discuss favorite brands, and even participate in international championships.

Jigsaw Puzzles Epic
Jigsaw Puzzles Epic

World Jigsaw Puzzle Championship

Origin: Initiated in 1988, the World Jigsaw Puzzle Championship is a testament to the global popularity of puzzles. Held annually, it draws participants from various countries, all competing for the title of World Puzzle Champion.

Competition Format: Contestants face off in several timed rounds, piecing together puzzles of varying sizes and difficulties. The speed and accuracy of completion determine the winners. Some rounds might involve puzzles as large as 2,000 pieces!

Prizes: Aside from the prestige of the title, winners often receive monetary rewards, which can range from $1,000 to $5,000 based on the event’s sponsors. Additionally, they might get exclusive puzzle sets, trophies, and certificates.

Venue and Time: The venue for the championship varies, often rotating between countries to promote global participation. The event usually spans a weekend, comprising of multiple rounds.

Online Puzzle Communities and Forums

Discussion Platforms: Websites like Jigsaw Puzzlers and Puzzle World are bustling with enthusiasts discussing puzzle brands, sharing solving techniques, and showcasing completed works.

Swap and Trade: Many online communities have sections where members can trade or sell puzzles. This is especially useful for those looking for out-of-production puzzles or unique sets from different regions.

Virtual Competitions: With the rise of digital platforms, many communities organize virtual puzzle-solving competitions. These can range from speed-solving challenges to thematic puzzle creation contests.

Reviews and Recommendations: New to the world of puzzles? These communities are a goldmine for reviews on puzzle quality, brand recommendations, and even solving tools.

Community Size: Some of the larger forums boast memberships in the tens of thousands, indicating the widespread love for jigsaw puzzles.

Being a part of these communities or participating in competitions not only deepens one’s appreciation for puzzles but also connects enthusiasts to a global network, enriching the entire experience. Whether you’re a casual solver or a competitive puzzler, there’s a place for everyone in this vibrant world.

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