The seven types of hydraulic machines include Hydraulic Pumps, Hydraulic Motors, Hydraulic Cylinders, Hydraulic Valves, Hydraulic Accumulators, Hydraulic Intensifiers, and Hydraulic Presses.
Hydraulic pumps are devices that convert mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. These pumps create a vacuum at the pump inlet which forces liquid from the reservoir into the inlet line. The pump then pushes the liquid into the hydraulic system. There are three main types of hydraulic pumps: gear pumps, piston pumps, and vane pumps.
These are simple and economical pumps. The gear pump design includes a pair of intermeshing gears that push the fluid by displacement.
Piston pumps can be used to move liquids or compress gases. They have the advantage of delivering liquid with high pressure.
Vane pumps have vanes, mounted to a rotor, that move through a cavity to push the fluid.
A hydraulic motor is a mechanical device that converts hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. They are the counterpart of the hydraulic pump. These motors are utilized for various applications such as conveyors, winches, and crane drives.
Hydraulic cylinders generate linear motion and force by using hydraulic fluid under pressure. They consist of a cylinder barrel, within which a piston connected to a piston rod moves back and forth. They are used in various applications, including manufacturing machinery and civil engineering.
The last type of hydraulic machines are hydraulic valves. These valves control the pressure, direction, and flow rate of the hydraulic fluid within the system. There are several types of hydraulic valves, including pressure control valves, flow control valves, and directional control valves.
Hydraulic accumulators are energy storage devices. Analogous to rechargeable batteries in an electrical system, they store and discharge energy in the form of pressurized fluid. In hydraulic systems, they serve to smooth out pressure spikes, supplement pump flow, and store excess hydraulic power for later use.
These are the most commonly used hydraulic accumulators. A bladder accumulator uses a flexible bladder to separate the hydraulic oil from the gas.
Piston accumulators use a piston to separate the gas end of the unit from the fluid end. They are more adaptable than bladder accumulators in terms of pressure and capacity options.
Diaphragm accumulators, which also separate the gas from the fluid, are often used for smaller flow rates and lower pressures.
Hydraulic intensifiers, also known as hydraulic boosters, are devices that generate a high hydraulic fluid pressure from a large cross-sectional area input force. The fluid in the small cylinder (intensifier) is hydraulically connected to the fluid in the large cylinder. These are often used in hydraulic systems where the pump cannot generate enough pressure or the pump flow rate is insufficient.
A hydraulic press is a machine using a hydraulic cylinder to generate a compressive force. They can be used in a variety of tasks, such as forging, clinching, molding, blanking, punching, deep drawing, and metal forming operations.
Hydraulic Power Networks
A hydraulic power network is a system of interconnected pipes carrying pressurized liquid used to transmit mechanical power from a power source, like a pump, to hydraulic equipment like lifts or motors. London’s hydraulic power network was a network of high-pressure cast-iron water mains that powered machinery throughout London.
- Hydraulic Pumps
- Hydraulic Motors
- Hydraulic Cylinders
- Hydraulic Valves
- Hydraulic Accumulators
- Hydraulic Intensifiers
- Hydraulic Presses